jeudi 27 juillet 2017

Takeda Sokaku and his mains students

The detail of its development in the Edo period (1603 -1868) and before is not clear. There are no books and no records about Daito-ryu.
According to oral tradition Yoshimitsu started Daito-ryu in the 11th century. He dissected the dead bodies of soldiers to understand human bone structure. He also learned his understanding of jujutsu from nature. This gave him the idea that the small could defeat the large.

Most of the above can be considered oral tradition, as there are no confirmed written records. 

END OF SAMURAI  PERIOD




Saigō Tanomo (西郷 頼母, May 16, 1830 – April 28, 1903) was a Japanese samurai of the late Edo period. Chief senior councilor (hittōgarō 筆頭家老 ) of the Aizu clan, he achieved fame due to his distinguished action in th Boshin War. He adopted the name Hoshina Chikanori (保科 近野里). Surviving the war, he became a Shinto Priest, and achieved renown as a martial artist. He is considered as one of the teachers of Takeda Sokaku.

What we know for certain is that Takeda Sokaku appeared and taught Daito-ryu Aiki Jujutsu to select people from 1898 to 1943.

After the fall of the samurai in 1868, acording to oral traditions, unique skills were taught to Takeda Sokaku, who besides being genius of Kenjutsu, also inherited Takeda family Jujutsu and Bojutsu from his grandfather and secret school of Sumo. It is known that as a teenager he used to go to local small Sumo tournaments and win the first prize, later to be punished severely by his father for doing so. According to some Aizu sources, the transmission of Aiki survived through centuries and was taught to Takeda Sensei by the last surviving Matsudaira family teacher of Bujutsu. Since Matsudaira was hiding at Nikkyo Toshogu shrine/temple from the imperial Japanese authorities, Takeda Sensei said it was Saigo Tanomo (real name: Hoshina Chikanori, the chief of destroyed Aizu) who taught him.



  Takeda Sokaku Sensei started to teach this combined art under the name of Yamato-ryu . Later it was suggested in the dojo of Sagawa Yukiyoshi’s father to change the name to Daitoryu Jujutsu, and after that Yoshida Kotaro suggested to use Daitoryu Aikijujutsu, since the skill of Aiki is unique.

 During his lifetime Takeda Sensei taught about 30,000 students and some of them were politicians, military officers, judges, policemen, and other persons of high social standing from all over Japan.
He certified approximately 30 peoples as Kyōju Dairi (教授代理, "representative instructor") including many famous martial artists ( Yoshida Kotaro, aikido founder Ueshiba Morihei, Matsuda Toshimi, Sagawa Yukiyoshi, Horikawa Kodo, Takuma Hisa , Yamamoto Kakuyoshi ).

Yoshida Kotaro

 


Yoshida, born in 1883, met Takeda sensei on the island of Hokkaido. In 1915, he presented Ueshiba Morihei, at that time, a pioneer in the wild world, which was at that time the northernmost island of the Japanese archipelago. It was also in that year that he obtained the Kyoju Dairi, a diploma of importance, allowing to teach Daito Ryu.

A cultivated man, Yoshida was a graduate of the Tohoku Gakuin, Waseda University, and it would also seem to be an American university. He was the author of numerous books, directed a newspaper and supervised a library. His life revolved between his reading, writing and Bujutsu. He was also a member of the ultra-nationalist group Genyosha (Black Ocean Society), a secret society founded at the end of the 19th century whose hidden aim was to push the conquest of the Asian continent and the expansion of Japanese military forces .
This organization was renowned for its espionage and sabotage techniques, which were carried out mainly in Russia, China and Manchuria in the years 1904-1905.
 


Yoshida, known for his skill in spear, saber, shuriken, etc., and also in the manipulation of muscles and joints, led a rather ascetic life, always dressed in the traditional Japanese way and wearing a tessen Serve as a weapon).

A traffic accident left him paralyzed on the left side, which did not prevent him from continuing to teach the Daito ryu. Among them were Oyama Masutatsu (Mas), founder of Kyokushin Karate, Kim Richard, an American-Korean martial expert who introduced the two men, Kondo Katsuyuki, from Shinbukan dojo in Tokyo, and Jibiki Hidemine.

Yoshida Kotaro died in Ibaraki Prefecture in 1966. His son Kenji, who emigrated to the US, reportedly transmitted to Don Angier, an American expert, the style known as Yanagi ryu.


In 1994, Ellis Amdur and Don Angier contacted Yoshida Kotaro's surviving son. He knew nothing about martial arts himself, but read from a diary of Yoshida's which mentioned him training in "Muso Yanagi ryu jujutsu, Yoshin ryu hibukijutsu and Daito ryu aikijujutsu.

Daito ryu scrolls wrote by Yoshida Sensei



 

Ueshiba Morihei Sensei




Ueshiba Morihei Sensei started Daito ryu in February 1915 at Hisada Inn in Engaru on introduction of Kotaro Yoshida (1883-1966) and received instruction from him in Shirataki until december 1919. In 1922 Takeda Sensei isits Ueshiba home in Ayabe, near Kyoto, where he teaches in “Ueshiba Juku” (April 28 to September 15) and awarded to Ueshiba Sensei  Kyoju Dairi teaching certification and Shinkage-ryu sword transmission scroll in September 1922.

Ueshiba Kyoju Dairi (1922)

 In 1931 Takeda Sensei conducts seminar in Morihei Ueshiba’s Kobukan dojo in Tokyo from March 20 to April 7 so the official opening ceremony took place just prior to its official opening (April)  after Sokaku had left Tokyo.


The page on the right above shows the awarding of the Kyoju Dairi (Assistant Instructor) license to Morihei Ueshiba in 1922. The page on the left is from 1931 and records that Sokaku Takeda taught Morihei Ueshiba the 84 Goshin’yo No Te techniques for March 20 to April 7 at Ueshiba’s home in Ushigome (now Wakamatsu-cho) at Kobukan - Dojo.

Ueshiba Sensei in the Kobukan Dojo in 1931 (we can find ueshiba Daito ryu certificate hanging from the wall on right side). May be this certificate was probably Kaishaku Soden 解釈相傳, the highest level in Daito-ryu in that times (same as Menkyo kaiden) . Kaishaku Soden is a diploma that certifies not only the transmission of all techniques, but also their understanding of them.



Opening ceremony of the Kobukan (April 1931) 皇 武館 道場, Imperial Warrior Dojo.  
The banner at the bottom of the dojo is a calligraphy of Deguchi Onisaburo and says "Ueshiba Juku" (植 芝 塾, school Ueshiba)

From 1933 to 1936 Ueshiba Sensei was teaching in  Osaka at Asahi Dojo on request of Takuma Hisa and prior to Sokaku Takeda’s arrival in Osaka in June 1936 (Ueshiba Sensei will suddenly leave Osaka when learning  arrival of his teacher Sokaku takeda.

 Ueshiba Sensei with Asahi members in 1935


 Video of Ueshiba Sensei in 1935 at Asahi Dojo

According to Sagawa Sensei Morihei Shihan was banned 3 times and finally received Hamon from Daito ryu school before founding his Aikido.

Matuda Toshimi Sensei 


Toshimi "Hosaku" Matsuda was born in 1895. by some reports he was a military officer. Matsuda Sensei began training in June 1928 (at age of 33) and received Kyoju Dairi certification from Sokaku Takeda Sensei in August 1929.


Matsuda Sensei taught his art in the Sobukan Dojo in Asahikawa city in Hokkaido and his
Main students were :

1.    Okuyama Ryuho    (1901 – 1987) (Introduced in 1929 to around  1941 ---> Hakko ryu foundation)
2.    Masao Hayashima 早島正雄 (1910 – 1999)    (道家合気術   Doka Aikijutsu)

3.    Takeshi Maeda ( 1911-2001) Kyoju Dairi in 1943, teading in 練心館 renshinkan and dead in 2001 and now   headed by 高瀬道雄 Michio Takase
4.    Takarada Motonobu   元信館 Montonobukan (introduced in 1945, received 8th Dan Okuden kaiden in 1951)
5.    Jang In Mok (korea) (장인목,  張寅穆) 


When Professor Matsuda achieved the age of seventy he said : "I have given a menkyo kaiden to three of  you, I have no responsibility anymore, so I will be retired." (reported by Takarada Sensei)


Matsuda Sensei with Koreans students

Matsuda Sensei, Okuyama Ryuho Sensei (on his right) 
and some koreans students in 1938

Takuma Hisa Sensei

on left : Hisa Sensei with Ueshiba Sensei at Kagami Biraki in 1935 and on right : with Takeda Sensei in 1939 when he receive Menkyo Kaiden

 Takuma was born in 1895 and died 1980. His home-town is in Kochi-prefecture in Shikoku-island. Japan is consisted of many islands, main islands are, from north, Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.

Hisa graduated Kobe university (school-name was different at that time). When Hisa was a school-boy he was a captain of Sumo-club. Sumo is one of Japanese martial arts, two persons wrestle in a circle about 6 meters diameter, when pushed out of this circle or touch the ground any part of his body except bottom of his feet, he is defeated. Hisa won All Kansai student Sumo championship. Kansai is western part of Honshu.

After Hisa graduated university he entered a commercial firm but that firm went bankrupt. After this Hisa entered Asahi newspaper company not the journalist department but the general affairs department. After 6 years he was promoted to the boss of that department. Asahi is a progressive newspaper, it was often attacked by right wings. Asahi newspaper company wanted to improve its guard power. Improving guard power is one of the general affairs department’s duties. In 1933 they invited Ueshiba Morihei, and started to learn Daito-ryu. Ueshiba Morihei later founded Aikido, but at that time he was a teacher of Daito-ryu.

Hisa practiced Daito-ryu with guardmen and other co-workers every morning. He practised harder than anyone, because he was a boss of the responsible department. In 1936 an aged man came and said ”I am Takeda Sokaku, the teacher of Ueshiba, if you want to learn Daito-ryu well, you must become my pupils”. Hisa could not believe him, so he wrestled with him to test his skills. They were far better than Ueshiba’s.
 Hisa was surprised and run to Ueshiba and told it. Ueshiba run away to Tokyo without even greeting. Ueshiba was an excellent pupil of Takeda, he was given Hiden 8 dan, the highest dan of Daito-ryu, their relationship was good early days, but it became worse later, I don’ t know why, someone says because of money, someone says because of philosophy.

Teacher changed to Takeda Sokaku, Hisa and other Asahi-men practised Daito-ryu harder than before . In March of 1939,  Takuma Hisa Sensei and Masao Tonedate of Asahi News dojo received Menkyo kaiden in 1939 and some Asahi-men were given Kyoju dairi.


 After given Menkyokaiden Hisa taught Daito-ryu to Asahi-men and policemen of Osaka. Hisa retired from Asahi in 1944. In 1945 Japan was defeated in the World War 2, and all Japanese martial arts were banned to practice.

After 3 years Japanese were permitted to practice martial arts again. Hisa opened his own dojo in Osaka, also in Asahi company Daito-ryu club revived, Hisa taught both in his dojo and Asahi club. In Hisa’s dojo excellent pupils are Mori ( Hiden 8 dan), Kobayashi ( Hiden 8 dan), Kawabe (Hiden 7 dan). In Asahi club Utsunomiya ( Hiden 8 dan) and Yutaka Amatsu (Hiden 8 dan) 



Takuma Hisa in this video at 2.40'

Sagawa Yukiyoshi Sensei

Yukiyoshi Sagawa (1902-1998) (佐川幸義) was one of the senior students of Daito-ryu Chuko-no-so (“Interim Reviver” / 中興の祖) Sokaku Takeda.
Sagawa’s father Nenokichi (佐川子之吉 1867–1950) was a long time supporter of Takeda, and was actually present at the Hisada Inn when Ueshiba was introduced to Takeda by Kotaro Yoshida.

Yukiyoshi Sagawa began studying Daito-ryu under Takeda Sokaku somewhere around 1913 at the age of 12 (so before Aikido Founder Morihei Ueshiba) after first learning the art from his father, Nenokichi Sagawa (佐川子之吉 1867–1950), who was a student and ardent supporter of Takeda, as well as a holder of a Kyoju Dairi (assistant instructor’s licence) in Daito-ryu.


 Sagawa Yukiyoshi , who was propably his highest student, and accompanied him as an assistant in the 1930s, received Kyoju Dairi in 1932,  Menkyo Kaiden ( 免許皆伝 total transmission ) in May 1938.

 Sagawa Sensei Hiden Ogi no koto (may 1938) (Kaishaku Soden level)


In September 1939, Sagawa Sensei was awarded  Seito-Sōden (正統総 Inherited total transmission).

 His licenses include these levels of transmission :
  • 118 techniques (Hiden Mokuroku)
  • 53 techniques (Aikijujutsu)
  • 36 techniques (Hiden Ogi)
  • 68 Aiki-ni-to [two-sword] techniques
  • 84 techniques (Goshin Yo no Te)
  • 477 techniques (Kaishaku Soden) 
Note : Kaishaku Sōden was the  highest level of transmission (equivalent to Menkyo kaiden in others schools of Jujutsu)  but in his lastest days Takeda added Menkyo kaiden (88 techniques scroll)  level to Daito ryu curriculum and Seito-Soden: 123 techniques and 100 Aiki-bo [stick/pole], Aikitachi, 31 Aiki-yari [spear].

In January 1954, Sagawa Sensei was actually designated as the successor to Takeda Sokaku by Munekiyo Takeda [son of Sokaku Takeda’s 1st wife] and Tokimune Takeda [son of Sokaku Takeda’s 2nd wife].

But on the 25th of January 1956 tokimune finally  became Soké 宗 家 (head of family, clan, school) and Sagawa So-Han (宗 範) So (school, clan, family) as in "Soké" and Han (model) as in "Shihan"

During his life, Sagawa Sensei  learned too both judo and kendo, studied and received licenses in Kogen Ittoryu Kenjutsu [one-sword] and Araki-ryu Jujutsu. He received ranks in Oshima-ryu Sojutsu [spear],  also studied karate, sumo, boxing, and wrestling. 


[Translation of Takeda Soke Letter of Succession] From Transparent Power – Tomei na Chikara by
Tatsuo Kimura ( Japanese edition was published in 1995 and english edition in 2009)

Creetings [expressed in very formal Janapese],
During this very cold season were are happy that you are well. We ourselves are very healthy and in good condition, so please do not worry about us.
On another topic, since the passing of our father Sokaku Takeda, the head of the organization Daito-ryu Aiki-bujutsu and jujutsu, we have been discussing who should be his successor to lead the headquarters [hombu]. In recognition of the fact that the highest license granted by Takeda Seisei was to Yukiyoshi Sagawa, whose personal character and techniques are very high level, we are in agreement that Yukiyoshi Sagawa is the most suitable person to succeed. Recently, Sagawa has accepted, and therefore we decide to name Yukiyoshi Sagawa as the 36th Soke [master] of Daito-ryu Akik-bujutsu. We now make this announcement publicly.
Mr. Sagawa became a student of our deceased father in Taisho 2 [1913] at the age of 12. He learned both judo and kendo, which he subsequently polished for many decades. During that time he also studied and received licenses in Kogen Ittoryu Kenjutsu [one-sword] and Araki-ryu Jujutsu. He received ranks in Oshima-ryu Sojutsu [spear], and the essences of other ko-ryu [old matrial arts], and also studied karate, sumo, boxing, and wrestling. He continued to study such budo and sports, and in May 1938 he has granted Kaiden [a very high license]. Ultimately, in September 1939 he received Seito-Soden [the very highest authorized license] covering the entire curriculum of Aiki-bujutsu. His licenses include certificates for 118 techniques, 36 techniques, and 84 techniques; Kaiden: 48 techniques; Aikijujutsu: 53 techniques; Seito-Soden: 123 techniques, and 100 Aiki-bo [stick/pole], Aikitachi, 68 Aiki-ni-to [two-sword] techniques, 31 Aiki-yari [spear] all as named in one certificate scroll. With this he was authorized the license of Seito-Soden. This year he is 51 year old.
In recent times, sports are becoming popular, judo is spreading to other countries, which is outstanding. But Daito-ryu is a way of life, both for self-defence and for healthy and long life. We would like to promote these aspects of Daito-ryu and help it develop. So please connect with Mr.Sagawa, and please make you best efforts to develop this school with Mr.Sagawa.
Showe 29 [1954], January
[address]
[Signed]
Munekiyo Takeda [son of Sokaku Takeda’s 1st wife]
Tokimune Takeda [son of Sokaku Takeda’s 2nd wife]

Horikawa Kodo Sensei

Horikawa Kodo received in 1930 Kyōju Dairi and one year later, he received the certificate of Hiden Mokuroku "The Secret Essence" - and a month after that, the final certificates of Hiden Ogi Mokuroku "The Secret Essence of Mysteries" and the Hi Ogi no Koto — "The Secret Essence of Aiki"Many years after he received Menkyo Kaiden from Sokaku's son, Tokimune. The menkyo kaiden was actually awarded by Takeda Sokaku Dai Sensei, who, unfortunately, died before signing the scroll.



Yamamoto Kakuyoshi Sensei who was Sokaku Takeda 's last student and received Kyoju Dairi in 1941 and Sokaku Takeda  's katana.




Takeda Tokimune Soke (Son of Takeda Sokaku)

 




 

Sokaku's successor, Takeda Tokimune, was born in Shimoyubetsu in Hokkaido in 1916. He was the first son born to Sokaku from his marriage to Sue, although Sokaku also had other children from two previous marriages. Around 1925, Sokaku began grooming Tokimune to be his successor, training him strictly in both swordsmanship and Daito-ryu. Tokimune lost his mother in 1930 as a result of a tragic fire that engulfed a local cinema. He was called upon to help look after his younger siblings in the absence of his mother.

In time, Tokimune began accompanying his father as his Representative Instructor (kyoju dairi), and in 1939 he became the Director of General Affairs (somucho) under Sokaku. Tokimune accompanied his father to Osaka that same year to award the menkyo kaiden certificates to Hisa Takuma and Tonedate Masao. The Eimeiroku entries written by Hisa and Tonedate state that these two were "taught the menkyo kaiden techniques by both Takeda daisensei and Mr. Takeda Tokimune." Also, Tokimune's signature appears alongside that of his father as "Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu, Director of General Affairs" at the beginning of this Eimeiroku. Moreover, the then twenty-three year-old Tokimune appears in commemorative photographs taken on that occasion.

With the outbreak of the Pacific War, Tokimune was called into military service. Upon his departure overseas, he left Sokaku's Eimeiroku and other documents in the care of Sagawa Yukiyoshi for safekeeping, out of concern that he might not return. Following his repatriation after the war, Tokimune relocated to Abashiri city and completed the Hokkaido Police Officer Training Course in 1946. While a member of the police force, he received several awards for outstanding service in the line of duty.
Tokimune became Sokaku's successor upon the latter's death in 1943. In 1954, he established his Daitokan dojo in Abashiri and began teaching Daito-ryu there. He changed the name of the school to "Daito-ryu Aikibudo" and assumed the title of Headmaster (soke). In 1976 he retired from his post on the board of the Yamada Fishery Company and devoted himself wholly to teaching Daito-ryu all over Japan.

Takeda Tokimune contributed greatly to the spread of Daito-ryu by introducing the art, that had been previously taught only to persons of relatively high social standing, to the general public via so-called "headmaster direct transmission seminars" (soke jikiden kai) organized throughout different parts of Japan. During the Japanese traditional martial arts demonstration held at the Nippon Budokan on 7 February 1981, Tokimune demonstrated for the first time a number of Daito-ryu techniques that had remained secret until that time (this demonstration was later televised on the NHK Education Channel). These included pinning down to the ground six opponents attempting to hold him from a standing position (tachiai rokunin zume); simultaneously throwing nine opponents attempting to pin him supine to the ground (newaza kyunin nage). Martial artists from around Japan were impressed with the sophistication of Daito-ryu techniques and Tokimune's abilities. During the same event in 1985, Tokimune for the first time demonstrated the feat of collapsing seven opponents who had lifted him up high in a horizontal position.


 Tokimune received numerous awards from different martial arts organizations, and on 3 November 1987 received the Cultural Award from Abashiri city.

In 1988, Takeda Tokimune appointed Kondo Katsuyuki, then the head of all Tokyo Daito-ryu Aikibudo Branches, to be both Representative of the Headmaster (soke dairi) and Director of the Overseas Headquarters (kaigai hombucho) in regard to Daito-ryu Aikibudo. That same year, Tokimune granted Kondo the menkyo kaiden (license of full transmission) certificate in Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu, thus formally passing on the Main Line Daito-ryu tradition. 
From 1989, Tokimune's health began to deteriorate and he spent most of his last years hospitalized until his death on 2 December 1993.

Daitokan dojo in Abashiri


Aucun commentaire:

Enregistrer un commentaire