mardi 5 juin 2018

Aiki no jutsu 合気之術 book from 1892 (Meiji 25)



Aiki no jutsu 合気之術 book from 1892 (Meiji 25)

From Jikan Dojo - Kishin Juku Ju Jutsu France Facebook page : "This old book from 1892 include definition of Aiki no jutsu 『合氣之術』 and Kiai no jutsu in Old Japanese martial arts . Sokaku takeda Sensei begin his public teaching travel in 1898...so historicaly "aiki no jutsu " 『合氣之術』 is not only found in Daito ryu tradition and lineage... "




Message from Kojima Sensei personal Facebook account :


Illusion make invitation to sin

"I will introduce the post of an French police officer engaged day and night to maintain security, this man who is dedicating life to the history search of Japanese martial arts and in the practice Aiki jujutsu (in fact this man is my disciple in my jujutsu private school ).
If you tell me the contents of the post in a word, it is a proof that "aiki no jutsu “ 『合氣之術』 is not a monopoly patent of a certain famous large school.
Why did he have to make a post like this ....?
Do you know that you know the historical facts of Japanese martial arts?
One Japanese Aiki Jujutsu pratictionner wrote that "aiki no jutsu " 『合氣之術』 is a unique art developed by the one particular japanese jujutsu school (NT Daito ryu) , so "aiki no jutsu " 『合氣之術』 would be an original propriety of that school (NT Daito ryu), so other jujutsu schools can use the word and teach "aiki no jutsu” 『合氣之術』" ....

It is because this japanese pratictioner is recruiting new disciples widely in selling complaints about how this is done, and also my disciple of the French branch of my school  was one who received solicitation directly from this man.

This japanese man 's probably not knowing in fact  the real history of "aiki no jutsu "
『合氣之術』 and the existence of this related book ( I also learned the existence of books from my diciple too (laugh)
In other words, it may have been an action of justice being driven by a belief as a martial artist ...
.


Finally, in this case, there is only one thing I would like to say / "Before you move in to action, first take your back", but this also remarked was also inspired by one advice from my police officer French disciple .... (laugh)"





If you want to know the REAL history of "aiki no jutsu " 『合氣之術』in japanese martial art please read this article below : 

Aiki in the Edo (1603-1868), Meiji (1868-1912), and Taisho (1912¬1925) periods


Original message of Kojima Sensei in Japanese :

【妄信は罪を招く】
フランスの現職警官として治安維持に日夜従事し、その一方で日本武道の歴史探求と合氣柔術の修行に人生を捧げているような男(僭越ながら弊塾の門弟です)の投稿を紹介させて戴きます。
投稿の内容をひと言で申せば、『合氣之術』は某有名大流派の専売特許ではないという証でございます。
なぜ彼がこのような投稿をしなければならなかったのか…。
それは最近、日本武道の歴史的事実を知ってか知らずか『合氣之術』は当派が開発した独自の術理であり、よって他の流派が『合氣之術』を語り教伝するとはこれ如何などと唱え、実際にそれを売り文句に手広く新弟子勧誘している御仁がおられるからであり、そして本投稿主である弊塾のフランス支部の門弟も、その勧誘をその御仁より直接受けた一人であるからでございます。
その御仁はおそらく、『合氣之術』の歴史と関係書籍の存在をも知らず(実は私も書籍の存在は門弟から教わりました()、『合氣之術』は当派の専売特許であると誰かから教授され妄信し、良く言えば武道家としての信念に突き動かされての正義の行動だったのかも知れません…(一応フォローだけはしておきます)
最後にこの件で私が言いたいことは只ひとつ、「行動に移す前に先ずは裏を取れ」ということなのですが、これもまた現職警官の我が門弟からの提唱に感化されての発言であることは言う迄もありません()

vendredi 23 février 2018

Yoshin ryu Jujutsu , Eastern & Western medecines and Sakkatsu-ho

Yoshitoki Shirobei Akiyama ( 秋山四朗兵衛義時) who was a physician and accomplished budoka from Nagasaki and is said to have founded Yōshin-ryū (楊心流) ("The School of the Willow Heart"). This happened before 1671. Yoshin Ryu JuJutsu  is seen as a classical Japanese fighting system traditionally.

Supposedly Yoshitoki Akiyama was inspired by the willow trees, which yielded to the heavy winter snow and thus avoided damage. The character for yo ( 楊 ) refers to a type of upright branching willow tree (红皮柳  Salix sinopurpurea) .  It is commonly found along yangzhou  揚州 "the willow city "  a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu Province, China. Yangzhou city is sitting on the north bank of the Yangtze river.

The Akiyama line of Yōshin-ryū is perhaps the most influential school of jūjutsu to exist in Japan. By the late Edo Period, Akiyama Yōshin-ryū and its descendants had spread all over Japan.

Yoshitoki Akiyama studied medicine and Chinese boxing - whether in China or Japan remains unclear. His system of martial study integrated existing Japanese combat forms of Jujutsu with an  Chinese striking system (called Kenpo  拳法 in some yoshin ryu scrolls).

CHINESE MEDECINE

Medicine during the Edo period was as five separate schools of medicine that were practiced in Japan. Each of these schools was based on the Chinese medical tradition. In the sixth century, Chinese medicine, kanpō, was brought to Japan by Buddhist priests. Kanpō utilized Chinese herbs, acupuncture, moxibistion and massage.  

Chinese medicine is based on the principle that the body, like the universe, can potentially achieve “a state of dynamic equilibrium if no strain is imposed on the system.” Unfortunately, the body was constantly disturbed by internal and external influences which manifest themselves as either deficiencies (ying) or excesses (yang) of energy. Because patients were seen as part of nature, illness was caused by these continual environmental forces acting on their bodies.

NAGASAKI AND WESTERN MEDECINE

Under the maritime restrictions imposed by the Tokugawa shogunate in the 1630s, which would remain in force until the Bakumatsu Period (1850s), the only foreigners permitted to trade at the port of Nagasaki were the Dutch and the Chinese. While only about 15-20 Dutchmen lived on Dejima at a time, Chinese residents of Nagasaki numbered in the thousands.



Deshima island in Nagasaki Bay in 1825


Western medicine slowly filtered into Japan during the Tokugawa period (1600-1858).
Western medicine was introduced to Japan by the Portuguese and Spaniards, but they made few contributions to medicine in Japan. The true cultural exchange between Japanese and European physicians occurred with the introduction of Dutch traders into Japan during Tokugawa Iemitsu’s rein.
By 1641, the Dutch had relocated their trading post to the island Deshima in Nagasaki Bay. The staff of the trading post on Deshima almost always included a European physician. These physicians played a vital role in the dissemination of Western medical knowledge to Japanese physicians and scholars throughout the Edo period. While this transference was hindered by the Bakufu’s severing of ties with the rest of Europe, Western medical knowledge slowly spread. By 1630, Tokugawa Iemitsu had effectively banned most Western books from Japan.

Due to Japan’s isolation from the Europe, the translation and study of Dutch books became synonymous with Western studies. While the term rangaku literally translates to “Dutch learning,” rangaku scholars studied other European works as well
 While Japanese variants of Chinese medicine dominated Japanese medical practice, western medicine made significant inroads and penetrated Japan.

Historian John Bowers claims that Western medicine ultimately triumphed over Chinese medicine due to the perseverance of Japanese students, scholars and European physicians stationed at Deshima. Over this time period, Japan experienced a gradual expansion of western medicine throughout Japan due to the concerted and dedicated efforts of some of the most important Japanese medical practitioners and advocates.

The key event in the expansion of Western medicine in Japan during the eighteenth century was the publication of Sugita Gempaku’s Kaitai Shinsho 解体新書 (New Treatise on Dissection) in 1774. Shigehisa Kuriyama described the publication of this book as “a major turning point in Japanese cultural history.

The Kaitai Shinsho was a translation of the Johann Adam Kulman’s Anatomische Tabellen (1731). Kulman’s book was an extremely accurate Dutch book on anatomy. The book contained numerous lithographs of human anatomy. While Katai Shinsho did not become the standard for Japanese medicine until the Meiji era, it would eventually play a vital role in transforming Japanese medicine.



Anatomische Tabellen  and  Kaitai Shinsho







 Extracts from the Katai Shinsho 


Short video in Japanese about Sugita Gempaku’s Kaitai Shinsho

 SAKKATSU-HO IN JUJUTSU 

Sakkatsu-ho (method to save life and to kill) contained teaching for use vital point (kyusho) and to use rescucitation techniques (kappo). We can see these methods exist exactly the same in Shin no Shinto Ryu and Tenjin  Shinyo Ryu, which are both from their parent's school : Akiyama Yoshin Ryu.
By translating and studying the Koryu Shinto Yoshin ryu Keiraku no maki we was  abble to understand that the Yoshin ryu school contained teaching from both chinese medecine and western medecine for killing methods and revival methods. 

 

 

 Koryu Shinto Yoshin ryu Keiraku no maki Hōreki 2 (1752) 


Atemi Gokui part of  Koryu Shinto Yoshin ryu Keiraku no maki Hōreki 2 (1752) 
  17 kyusho  listed below:

  • 草靡 Sobi Rubbing grass / Frottement de l' Herbe  (proverbe confucéen)
  •  秘中 Hichu secret center / centre secret  
  • 人中 Jinchu center of the man / centre de l' homme 
  • 烏乱 Koran   Raven revolted  / corbeau révolté  
  • 獨鈷 Dokko One handed Vajra / Vajra à une seule main (vajra : « diamant » et « foudre »  instrument   dans la tradition bouddhique vajrayāna (« voie du diamant »)  
  • 烏兎 Uto hare and raven /  lièvre et corbeau (Yin & Yang : les deux yeux)  
  • 明間 Meikan Bright space / Espace lumineux 
  • 松風 Matsukaze pine wind / vent des pins 
  • 村雨 Murasame village rain / pluie villageoise 
  • 釣鐘 Tsukigane hanging bell / cloche suspendue (cloches bouddhistes) 
  • 電光 Denko  Lightning bright flash /  Foudre éclair brillant 
  • 月影 Tsukikage Shadow of the moon / Ombre de la lune 
  • 雁下 Ganka below the Wild Goose / sous l' Oie sauvage 
  • 少寸 Shosun  1 petit pouce / 1 petit sun (sun : unité de mesure correspondant à environ 3cm ) 
  • 明星 Myojo star bright / étoile brillante 
  • 氷月 Suigetsu Moon on the water / Lune sur l' eau 
  • 貫元 Kangen  Old Kan / Ancien Kan (kan est une ancienne unité de mesure japonaise correspondant   à 3.75 kg)





Tenjin ShinYo ryu kyusho

Tenjin ShinYo ryu Chi no maki (scroll of earth) listing 7 kyusho 
(Uto, Kasumi, Jinchu, Dokko, Hichu, Matsukaze, Murasame)





 Shin no shinto ryu chart with organs


Chart from Shin no Shinto ryu Jodan Keiraku no maki 1807

Tenjin ShinYo ryu jujutsu 's kyusho locations in relation to organs,
(to be compared with this picture just below)

KAPPO 

Kappo (活法 kappō, "resuscitation techniques") is a contraction of the two Japanese words Katsu (resuscitation) and Ho (method). kappo refers to resuscitation techniques used to revive someone who has been choked to the point of unconsciousness, to lessen the pain of a strike to the groin, to help someone drowned or to stop a bleeding nose...


Eri Kappo  method from 1894 manual


CONCLUSION

Sakkatsu-ho 殺活 (method to save life and to kill) in Old Jujutsu schools contained teaching for use vital points (kyusho) and to use rescucitation techniques (kappo) .
Around 1700, old japanese Jujutsu masters have combined old Japanese Jujutsu , Chinese kenpo methods with teachings from Eastern medecine and Western medecine to make a synthesis which allowed them an more effective and pragmatic method of application .


  Related Koryu Jujutsu documents analyzed for our study :
  •  Tenjin shinyo ryu Jin no maki Meiji 4 = 1871 
  •  Shin no shindo ryu Jodan Keiraku no maki (bunka 4 - 1807)
  •  Koryu Shinto Yoshin ryu Keiraku no maki Hōreki 2 (1752) 
  •  Atemi Gokui section from Koryū Yōshin Shintō Ryū Mokuroku (1752)  


samedi 17 février 2018

About Jikan Dojo 慈眼道場 Kenyukai 研究会 Research society

Jikan Dojo 慈眼道場  Kenyukai 研究会 Research society

Translation and research from  Koryu Jujutsu scrolls and transmission documents. 


The main purpose of our research society is to provide the most authentic informations  on historical lineages, philosophical paradigms, strategical concepts, technical catalogs contained  in the classical Japanese Jujutsu schools 's Densho 傳書 (transmission documents)  and Maki  巻 (scrolls).



Currently the most used term is JuJutsu 柔術  but historically several other terms have been used according to each schools and according of the times of foundation , some examples of terms : Taijutsu 躰術 體術 ,Yawara 和, Kogusoku 小具足, Koshi mawari 腰廻 ...






  
Below you can find some examples of our  research's documents  (private consultation only)

YOSHIN RYU 


KENKAN-MON  The Gates of Observation 1829
MENKYO HOSHO 1713


 KORYU YOSHIN SHINTO RYU JUJUTSU 1752 

Koryū Yōshin Shintō Ryū Mokuroku
Yōshin Ryū Jodan No Maki
Koryu Yōshin Shintō Ryū Keiraku No Maki
Naiden Juroku No Kata
Yōshin Ryū Hiketsu No Jō


TENJIN SHINYO RYU JUJUTSU
 
TENJIN SHINYO RYU TEN NO MAKI 1877
TENJIN SHINYO RYU CHI NO MAKI 1906
TENJIN SHINYO RYU JIN NO MAKI 1871 1909
TENJIN SHINYO RYU MENKYO YO NO MAKI (not translated yet) 1882
TAI-I-ROKU ( unknow date) recorded big thoughts
IEMOTO GITEI-SHO  Protocols of the Headmaster 1832
JUJUTSU SEISHI   Kishōmonji written Record of the Vow to the Gods 1863

SHIN NO SHINTO RYU   JUJUTSU
SHIN NO SHINTO RYU NO MAKI    1753 (from founder)
SHIN NO SHINTO RYU NO KEIRAKU NO MAKI 1807
SHIN NO SHINTO RYU NO MAKI (date ?)
SHIN NO SHINTO RYU JODAN NO MAKI (1779)
KITO RYU JUJUTSU
KITO RYU TEN    MAKI 1796 - 1907
KITO RYU CHI    MAKI 1671
KITO RYU JIN    MAKI 1736 - 1796
KITO RYU HONTAI MAKI
KITO RYU HONTAI MAKI (issued by Kano Jigoro to Saigo Shiro)1885
KITO RYU KUDEN HISHO MAKI
KITO RYU SEI NO MAKI
KITO RYU JUJUTSU NO BEN DENSHO
KIRAKU RYU JUJUTSU

KIRAKU RYU KIRIGAMI ICHI NO MAKI
KIRAKU RYU MEDAI ICHI NO MAKI
KIRAKU MENJO ICHI NO MAKI
KIRAKU RYU MOKUROKU ICHI NO MAKI 
TAKENOUCHI SANTO RYU NO DENSHO
HIGO RYU TAIJUTSU KYOTEIJO
SHOSHO RYU YAWARA
7 MAKI FROM 1721 -1846 -1834
YAGYU SHINGAN RYU JUJUTSU
   
YAGYU SHINGAN RYU HEIHO NO SHO MOKUROKU 1809
YAGYU SHINGAN RYU SHODAN CHUDAN NO MAKI 1869
YAGYU SHINGAN RYU MAKIMONO NO MAKI 1869
YAGYU SHINGAN RYU HIJUTSU NO MAKI 1869



現代 流 柔術 MODERN SCHOOLS OF JUJUTSU

 DAITO RYU  AIKI JUJUTSU
DAITO RYU JUJUTSU HIDEN MOKUROKU 1905
HIDEN OKUGI 1905
AIKI NO JUTSU (date ?)
HAKKO RYU JUJUTSU 
HAKKO RYU SHIHAN GI MAKI
HAKKO RYU KAIDEN GI MAKI
HAKKO RYU SANDAIKICHU MAKI
HAKKO RYU 4 HIGISHI MANUALS 1955 & 1980
KOKODO SHIHANGI – KAIDENGI - KOGYOKU DENSHO
OLDS BOOKS ABOUT JUJUTSU, AIKI/KIAI CONCEPT

BUDO HIKETSU AIKI NO JUTSU 1890
KIAI JUTSU SAKKATSU JIZAI 1911
SHINDEN GOSHIN JUTSU SHINSHIN TANREN KIAI OYO 1922
HAYANAWA KAPPO KENPO KYOHAN ZUKAI ZEN 1898



 Extract from Shosho ryu maki 1721
Extract from Kito ryu Chi no maki 1671
Tenjin Shinyo ryu 1870's & Shin no Shinto ryu maki 1807
Daito ryu Jujutsu Hiden Mokuroku 1905


mercredi 20 décembre 2017

Aiki in the Edo (1603-1868), Meiji (1868-1912), and Taisho (1912¬1925) periods



Aiki in the Edo (1603 - 1868), Meiji (1868 - 1912), and Taisho (1912 - 1925) periods





In the Edo era (1603-1868)
Kito-ryu Jujutsu's "Touka Mondou" (Lamplight Dialogue) of 1764. 

 toka mundo  燈下問答

There, "aiki" (相気) is used to refer to the difficult state of engaging in attack and defense when in the same kisetsu* as the opponent. 
 The use of "aiki" (合気) can be found in many martial arts writings of the 1800s, with the same meaning as in the Touka Mondou.** 
* kisetsu 気節is a compound of "ki", in this case meaning "feeling, intention", and "setsu", which carries a sense of both "time/rhythm" and "joint/break". In this context, it refers to the ebb and flow of intention and timing between attack and defense. 気節が合う, then, is talking about both opponents engaging in attack, or both opponents engaging in defense, or matched in permutations thereof, creating a stalemate.

** This meaning of "aiki" matches with the one reference to
合気   found in Yagyu Shinkage-ryu, indeed, in a document dating to the early 1800, there it refers to a state of stalemate created by both opponents embodying 攻防一致, a unity of attack and defense.

Aiki concept in Yagyu Shinkage ryu , here's the situation in the kata:
Shidachi is in a strong chudan stance; no suki. Uchidachi is a in a strong chudan stance; no suki. 
The situation is a stalemate. This is "aiki", as in "kisetsu ga au".In the kata, shidachi drops his strong chudan stance, to invite uchidachi's attack, or any kind of response, and create a suki. This is called "departing from aiki". Breaking the stalemate. This is the use of the term "aiki" in YSR, and the use that Mr. Shishida is talking about.


The word aiki is found in Edo era books on some kenjutsu (sword fighting) documents. 
For example, Kenjutsu Hiden Hitori Shugyo (Secret Sword Techniques, Training Alone) written by Sen-en in 1800 reads, “A situation in which two people stand facing each other is aiki.

Ittoryu Heiho Toho Kigenko (A Study on the Origin of Itto-ryu’s Freestyle Practice) written by Zesuke Nakanishi in 1822 reads, “When facing an enemy, this gets to the point of aiki, waiting and seeing how one beats the other.” 

Both books use aiki as a disagreeable term, a confrontation of strong wills. 

 So it is said aiki is a negative point in sword fights.


In the Meiji era (1868-1912)
  


However, in the Meiji era, books about aikijutsu rather than kenjutsu put a positive significance to aiki. 


The shift away from this meaning began with the 1892 "Budo Hiketsu Aiki no Jutsu" book (The Secret Budo Techniques of Aiki) wrote by Bukotsu koji 武骨居士 









Here "aiki" is an inner teaching of budo, with the meaning of "being one step ahead of the enemy" (敵より一歩先んずる). Here, "techniques of reading the mind of the enemy" (敵人読心の術) and "the aiki of battle cries" (掛け声の合気) are explained with "being ahead" (先んずる) as a presupposition, but specifics are not noted.



The author wrote that tekijin dokushin no jutsu (techniques of reading an opponent’s mind) and kiai (yelling) are the most important parts of aiki.

 The former teaches the control of an opponent before an actual fight; that is, reading his thoughts at the same time as they spring to his mind, or using go no sen, which is avoiding his thoughts of beating you. The latter teaches you how to defeat an opponent with your voice.




気合術 : 殺活自在 Kiai-jutsu: Sakkatsu jizai




Extract of Katsusatsujizai kiai-jutsu 1911 book :
 ()合氣、靜的方面  雲無心にして岫を出づるといふ場合である。(潜䍠の
狀態)
()氣合、動的方而  或る特別の目的に向つて邁進し活動する場合である。
(
顯䍠の狀態)
合氣は精神に何等の碍滯もなく、何等の恐怖もなく、何等の邪念もなく、
虛無恬澹の中、隙もなく弛みもなき場合である。
氣合は應事接物の際、其目的に向つて勢力を集注し、遲疑逡巡せず、勇往
邁進する場合である。斯くいへば、氣合は活動的で、合氣は非活動的の加
く思はるが、全くさうではない。是れは唯説明の便宜上二つに分解し
て見ただけで、實際には分解して、是れは合氣、是れは氣合と取り出す
とは出來ないのである。たとへば顯䍠と潜䍠との如きものである。 要は
活躍自在縱横無魔の狀態に達するのをいふのである。

 Translation in english :
(1) Aiki,i is a static direction, inactive ,  innocent spirit, latent heat..
(2) Kiai, is when dynamic & active ways. kiai is a dynamic direction, a cared feeling, and a sensible heat.
Kiai is also sometimes spoken of as aiki. Although the two are one and the same thing when construed in a broad sense, yet they admit of distinction when more narrowly interpreted.
Briefly kiai implies the active side of one’s mind, whereas aiki has to do with its passive state. In other words, the former [KIAI] represents a condition in which one’s ki or mental energy is actively concentrated upon the object in view, whereas the latter [AIKI]  indicates a state in which this mental force is quiescent (quiet, calm, peaceful).
For practical purposes there is no need to distinguish between the two. They stand to each other in much the same relation as active to latent heat.
Kiai is thus the motive power which prompts man to an action with the strong resolve to carry it to a successful issue; it is the force which furnishes the impulse to take advantage of opportunity.”
According to this authority, kiai may be described as the potential power which governs the course of human life, and the source of the energy inherent in the human race,the energy of all energies, in short.



  「忍術気合術秘伝」(東京催眠術学会・大正6年)Ninjutsu kiai-jutsu hiden
(Tōkyōsaimin-jutsu gakkai 1917)


Ninjutsu kiai-jutsu hiden    Page 49   Aiki no jutsu 合氣の術



Ninja uses techniques of study and cow disease. The secret mystery of Aiki is kiai jutsu  and technique of reading an opponent's mind dokushinjutsu.
 
In the Taisho era, this trend continued and we can find aiki along with kiai in many books on
bujutsu. They say aiki is the technique in which you can take advantage in a battle by reading
an opponent’s mind.


In japanese by Fumiaki Shishida:

「合気の概念
 合気武道という名辞が他の武道と識別されるのは、「合気」という概念にある。合気という言葉は、日本の江戸時代の武術伝書、例えば、一七六四年の起倒流柔術書「灯火問答 」に見ることができる。そこでは、「あいき(相気)」を、技の攻防の際に相手と気筋が合って闘うのに困難な状態になる意味で用いている。「合気」という用語の使用は、一八 〇〇年代の多くの武術伝書にも見いだすことができるが、これらの意味も「灯火問答」と同義である。こうした意味内容を転換させたのは一八九二年の「武道秘訣合気の術」であ り、ここで、「合気」の意味は武道の奥義であり、「敵より一歩先んずる」こととしている。ここには、「先んずる」前提として「敵人読心の術」と「掛声の合気」が説明されて いるが、具体的内容について記していない。
 大東流柔術において合気の意味をどのように定義付けていたのは、現在ではあまり明確に伝えられていない。それは同流中興の祖武田惣角が、日本武術の秘密主義の伝統に従っ てその内容を書物として残さなかったことによる。しかしながら、高弟の一人佐川子之𠮷は一九一三年のノートに「合気をかける としばしば記しておる、大東流柔術おいて合気という言葉や技法が大東流合気柔術改称以前から指導されていたことが知られる。合気という言葉のこうした不明確性が、大東流合 気柔術教授代理・植芝の合気の解釈に曖昧さを生んだ。
 しかし、植芝流が大きくなるにつれて、植芝の門下生や後継者たちはその曖昧さを補うように、合気道における合気という言葉に次ぎのような解釈を行った。つまり、「合気」 が 「合」と「気」からなる文字の構成から「天地の気に合わせる道」という解釈や、体験的悟境から生まれた自然の動きや、動きのリズムに合わせるという「天人合一」の解釈 などである。」


Sources :
The Actual Conditions and Educational Strength of Budo Education by Fumiaki Shishida

In Japan in late 1800 and early 1900 Japan was in a period of absorption of Western theories (medical, military, political ...), including also "esoteric" practices such as "mesmerism", "magnetism" , hypnotism ... that they mixed with their own "esoteric" practices (Shinto, Buddhism, shugendo ...)
If we search in Japanese digital libraries it is easy to see that there are many books dealing with the concepts of Hypnotism (催眠 術), Kiai-jutsu (sound kiai) 気 合 術 and Aiki-jutsu (silent kiai) 合 気 術 published late 1800 early 1900 in Japan:





1.        books on hypnosis in Japan early 1900 (between 1880 and 1919: 242 books are referenced as mentioning the term Saimin-jutsu (Hypnosis) in their title or in their summary)
2.        books on kiai-jutsu in Japan early 1900 (between 1900 and 1919: 32 books are referenced as mentioning the term kiai-jutsu in their title or in their summary)






About esotericism practices in Japan
 
 
Onmyōdō (陰陽道, also In'yōdō, lit. ‘The Way of Yin and Yang’) is a traditional Japanese esoteric cosmology, a mixture of natural science and occultism. It is based on the Chinese philosophies of Wu Xing (five elements) and yin and yang, introduced into Japan at the beginning of the 6th century. It was accepted as a practical system of divination. These practices were influenced further by Taoism, Buddhism and Shintoism, and evolved into the system of onmyōdō around the late 7th century. Onmyōdō was under the control of the imperial government, and later its courtiers, the Tsuchimikado family, until the middle of the 19th century, at which point it became prohibited as superstition.

Shugendō evolved during the 7th century from an amalgamation of beliefs, philosophies, doctrines and ritual systems drawn from local folk-religious practices, pre-Buddhist mountain worship, Shinto, Taoism and esoteric Buddhism.
The 7th century ascetic and mystic En no Gyōja is widely considered as the patriarch of Shugendō, having first organized Shugendō as a doctrine. Shugendō literally means "the path of training and testing" or "the way to spiritual power through discipline." In modern times, Shugendō is practiced mainly through Tendai and Shingon temples


Hypnotic phenomena existed among the Miko (Shinto female shaman, mediums) and Shyu-genjyas and Gyōja 行者 (ascetics) in ancient Japan (Shugendo and Yamabushi).
At that time, people attached great importance to Mikos; However, most people today do not believe it, with the exception of a few old people in northern Japan who talk to Mikos as their advisers. If we mean by "hypnosis" in the broad sense of the term any condition of mind and body, we can say that in Japan there were religious sects that have a close relationship with hypnosis.
After 1867 the Meiji government's desire to create a form of state Shinto headed by the emperor—the shaman-in-chief of the nation—meant that Shinto needed to be segregated from both Buddhism and folk-religious beliefs. As a result, official discourse increasingly repeated negative views of Miko.


Esotericism practices in Japanese martial arts





Example in video of the existence of an "occult" practice with the 9 Juji or Kuji kiri personal protection signs practice in the katori Shinto ryu school









The Kuji Kiri diagram appears here in this section of Tokimune Takeda's private notes of his father Sokaku's teachings :



Tokimune takeda about aiki (interviews conducted with Tokimune Takeda between 1985 and
1987 in Abashiri, Hokkaido and Tokyo)

Could you explain in a little more detail about the concept of aiki ?

Aiki is to pull when you are pushed, and to push when you are pulled. It is the spirit of slowness and
speed, of harmonizing your movement with your opponent's ki. Its opposite, kiai, is to push to the limit, while aiki never resists.
Aiki applies to self-defense when an opponent attacks first, and we use the term to refer to self-defense for people in general. These two must not be confused. Thus, the police do not use the word aiki. They use jujutsu. They fight with kiai, using a sen sen attack. Attacking is kiai. Aiki, on the other hand, is go no sen. policemen are permitted to attack first. This is why the police studied Daito-ryu, though these days the mixture of judo, kendo, Aikido, and other arts used by the police is usually referred to as taihojutsu or arrest techniques. 

Tokimune Takeda about kiai
Kiai in the situation in which the opponent becomes involved by my ki-ai. As an example the shout (Ehi, Toho, Hath, Iehii, Ihaa) increases each one's courage and consequently allows the dealing of you opponent by you own will, scarring him and putting him a discouragement condition, without being able to offer any resistance.

Tokimune Takeda about ki
In Daito-ryu are kept the secrets of aiki. The life depends on ki, therefore the ki has to be developed. With the right way of breathing one can properly the ki and succeed at reaching mental concentration.
Developing a determined and courageous spirit, one can obtain an almost divine mental state and be in position of understanding, based on the nature of the ki that he encounters [a opponent], of how to act and manage the situation. Thus, the attach of opponent can nearly be seen before it happens.

Tokimune Takeda about aiki in-yo
In means reaching a calm state through the closing of our hands in fists and correct breath inhalation.
Yo instead is to exhale completely while opening the again. Thanks to the way of breathing, the Aiki-in-yo-ho, the mind is focused and the gaze is more penetrating; one will therefore succeed therefore at maintaining his courage and manipulate the opponents in a nearly supernatural way using [only] the ten fingers [of the hands].

Tokimune Takeda about  Aiki-tanren-ho
It is practiced in couples and when the partner grabs our wrists, one must try to focus the ki in the armpits, the legs and fingertips: then we will be able to throw the opponent in every direction. Since this is a training to also improve the breathing, it is important that both [the students] practice without making too much use of force; it is also possible to practice without a single hand. The aim of this exercise is to reinforce properly the ki and the muscular power.

A step apart from the mystic of aiki


Takeda Sokaku Sensei used the aiki concept in Shugendo, Buddhism “esoteric practices “ that he added to his Jujutsu but but he did it in a very practical way.


 For Takeda Sokaku Sensei Aiki concept was technical principle to neutralize enemy power during first contact !


Sagawa Sensei began training in Budo before he was 10 years old, and from the time that he first met Takeda Senshi in Taisho year 1 (1912) he would often hear him speak the word “Aiki”. The word “Aiki” as a technical term in Budo was unfamiliar to the young Sagawa, so he made particular note of its usage. 




Further, the notes taken by (Sagawa) Sensei’s father, Nenokichi Sagawa Sensei (佐川子之吉), from the workshop at which he was taught Yonkajo (四ヶ条) by Takeda Senshi in Taisho year 2 (1913) have survived to this day. In those notes “Apply Aiki” (合気をかける) can be seen written in the corner. This memo, which can said to be absolute material evidence, was confirmed by Stanley Pranin, the editor of “Aiki News” when he visited Sagawa Sensei while gathering materials on Aiki.

An Aiki body : an internal body conditioning

 
As Makoto Kojima Sensei always said to us: Basic training of Kata constructs Aiki body from inside little by little...”

Aiki is to constructs a unified , connected & stable body who does not use our muscles and bones in partial ways.
We usually, unfortunately initially, tend to use our limbs and our body in a partial way, like an athlete who raises weights in order to build muscles.

But stable does not mean immobile, constructs Aiki body is build a Sensible body so one can react instantly to our opponent's change

 


Aiki as a philosophical Way of Human Development




This scroll was written by Yukiyoshi Sagawa, that he hung on the wall of his Dojo. A picture of the actual scroll appears at the top of this article, and appears in Kimura Tatsuo’s book “Discovering Aiki” (“合気修得への道“)



First transcription in Japanese, and then translation in English by Christopher Li :





合気之武道即ち人間修養の道

合気は気を合はす事である。
宇宙天地森羅万象のすべては融和調和により
て円満に滞りなく動じているのである。その
調和が合気なのである。
合気は自然の気なれば少しの蟠りもなく抗ひもなく合一融和するものである。
人類社会形成においても合気即ち融和調和が
基調でなければならない。
これは合気の大円和という。
暴を奮う者に対しては合気の理に依りこれを
なだめ融和致させ、また敵の既発に対しては
同じく合い気の理により敵の攻撃に随い転化
または変更して融和致さすのである。
悟人は流祖新羅三郎源義光公より傳承したる
合気之術を基本と躰術(柔)太力之術創術棒
術等の武術を修行して合気之武道即ち人間修
養の道に迄至達せねばならね。



        Aiki is the fitting together of Ki.
Through this harmonious reconciliation all things under heaven and earth in the universe move peacefully without disturbance. This harmonization is Aiki.
As the Ki of Aiki is natural it unifies and reconciles without the slightest ill feeling or resistance.
The harmonious reconciliation that is Aiki must be the basis for the formation of human society.
This is the Great Circle of Harmony (Daienwa) of Aiki.
Through the principles of Aiki pacify and reconcile those threatening violence. Also when the enemy has already attacked, likewise transform and change according to the attack of the enemy through the principles of fitting together Ki and achieve reconciliation.
Enlightened people have received this transmission from the Founder, Shinra Saburo Minamoto Yoshimitsu, and must train devoutly in the basics of Aiki no Jutsu as well as Taijutsu (Yawara), Tachi no Jutsu, Sojutsu, and Bojutsu to attain the state where Aiki Budo is the Way of Human Development.

 Aiki in Kishin Juku Jujutsu ?




Nowadays it seems that some Aiki Jujutsu or Aikibudo groups claim the origin of the term "aiki" .Concequently, we simply notice that these groups have in fact no knowledge of the history and context of use of the term "aiki" in Japanese martial arts history !

As exemple some Aiki practitioners hold the belief that with only the principle of total relaxation they can neutralize a REAL ennemy attack but we are forced to note that their aiki is often only a simple choregraphy where their partner never resists ! This is like AIKI DANCE CHOREGRAPHY , this can look beautiful but this so far way of martial art efficiency . Often they have no experience of the reality of street aggression in fact !

These practitioners are often very active in showing to others their budo certificates, their budo scrolls (that they often buy with very expensive MONEY) .... These actions are nothing else than demonstration to other their desire to make demonstration of their EGO 

On the other hand, some people use the term aiki abundantly too, but we find that their techniques are only demonstrations of physical strength with a large amount of technical errors.
These practitioners are often very active to post their videos on the internet or social networks....Again this is just a demonstration of their technical incompetence and their desire to make demonstration of their EGO.


No in Kishin Juku we have not find a "magical" aiki technique. Kishin juku Jujutsu school has chosen REALITY aiki world instead of the world of fiction and MAGICAL aiki world 🤣

You want to know what is Aiki concept for us ? Start by participate one of Kojima Makoto Sensei seminar and just grab his wrists, you will begin to have a clear idea of what the concept of Aiki means for us !